Artemis worship instigated the restrictions of 1 Timothy 2:9-15

Artemis worship instigated the restrictions of 1 Timothy 2:9-15

:1 Timothy is a letter written to help Timothy navigate the mixed-up, idolatrous ideas that were wreaking havoc on the faith of the Christians in Ephesus. Read more about these problems in this article. In 1 Timothy 2:9-15, Paul placed extreme limitations on the women in the Ephesian church, because the women were especially causing problems. We read in chapter 5 that some women were not only disturbing the households of the church, but were demanding monetary support, and were implanting teaching that Paul calls “satanic” (5:15). In chapter 2, we deduce  the Ephesians were praying to the wrong god, with wrong ideas about posture, attitude and apparel. The refusal to learn (2:11), the dominating insistence of women (2:12), and the incorrect teaching about the creation order and fall (2:13-14) were all bound together in these women’s fear of dying in childbirth (2:15).

The false teaching that was propagated by the Ephesian women is a mystery until you place these thoughts in their historical and geographical context: Ephesus in the first century. In Ephesus,  the pervasive worship of Artemis swayed the church away from the true faith, and Paul’s words in 1 Timothy 2:9-15 reflect her influence.

“Great is Artemis of the Ephesians” (Acts 19:28)

Model of the Artemisium - Ephesus Museum

(© José Luiz Bernardes Ribeiro / , via Wikimedia Commons)

In 1 Timothy, Artemis is not mentioned by name, but her dominating presence in Ephesus was pervasive, as Paul himself experienced in Acts 19, when a city-full of her worshipers spent two hours shouting “Great is Artemis of the Ephesians,” until commanded to disperse. Her temple was described by Pliny as four times as large as the Parthenon,[1] and housed a large idol believed to have “fallen from the sky (Acts 19:35).” She was worshiped by “all Asia and the world (Acts 19:27).” While the Ephesians believers embraced the gospel, “the author of the epistle seems to be combating mixed devotion to Jesus … and to Artemis, whom the converts could not yet abandon altogether.”[2] Many of Paul’s instructions “overlap with common teachings of the Artemis cult.”[3]

There are three distinctions of the Artemis of Ephesus cult that are relevant to 1 Timothy 2:9-15: celibacy, first born status, and midwifery protection.

Artemis was celibate.

Joseph Paelinck - The Fair Anthia Leading her Companions to the Temple of Diana in Ephesus - WGA16853

(Joseph Paelinck [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons)

Artemis was a virgin, served by young, prestigious maids of rank and eunuchs from Ephesian aristocracy.[4] Steven Baugh summarizes her persona neatly.

“The ancient Ephesians themselves presented Artemis Ephesia to the world as the traditional tomboy huntress who stood for chastity and the rejection of marriage.”[5]

In the Ephesian church, false teachers were banning marriage (4:3), which Paul condemned. Paul took a different stand on virgins in Ephesus than he did in Corinth (1 Cor. 7:25) where he encouraged singleness, indicating his instructions were culturally directed depending on the social and religious environment. Syncretism with the worship of Artemis might have caused this elevation of the celibate state in Ephesus. And since it was linked to the worship of Artemis, Paul denounced it.

Artemis was the first born twin.

Apollo Artemis Brygos Louvre G151

(Briseis Painter [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons)

It was popular belief that Artemis was the pre-eminent first born. Apollo, her twin, was subsequent.[6] This birth order gave Artemis dominance over her male twin. She was the big sister in charge. Consider Paul’s words in 1 Timothy 2:12-14 in light of the Artemis teaching.

12 I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet. 13 For Adam was formed first, then Eve; 14 and Adam was not deceived, but the woman was deceived and became a transgressor. 1 Timothy 2

Paul’s reference to the Genesis account of creation was to correct false myths concerning the superiority women claimed over men through Artemis.[7]  This false teaching would naturally be taught by the women who used Artemis’s supremacy to dominate the men of the church (2:12). Paul referenced Genesis, not as proof that women as second-formed are more easily deceived, but as a presentation of the facts without stating ramifications. In 2 Corinthians 11:3, Paul warned both men and women against being deceived, but in Ephesus, it most likely was the deception of the Artemis cult that especially enticed the women. The Genesis reference taught God as creator, Adam as first created; and refuted the very existence of the gods.

Artemis was the goddess of childbirth.

Bébé Ex-voto gallo-romain Musée Saint-Remi 120208
(By Vassil (Own work) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons)

Artemis was extremely popular throughout the ancient world because she promised to protect women in the most hazardous of all feminine endeavors. Childbirth. Modern readers cannot appreciate the tension of becoming a mother in previous times. The joy of bearing children was tempered by the terrifying fact that childbirth complications lowered the life expectancy of ancient women to 25-30 years of age.

Artemis promised to protect women in childbirth.[8] Although a virgin herself, she had great empathy for laboring women. According to Homer’s myth, Artemis witnessed her own mother, Leto, labor nine days to birth her twin brother, Apollo. As well as protecting women in childbirth, she also guarded the city of Ephesus.[10] Strabo says this is because it was her birthplace. When the temple of Artemis was burned to the ground the first time, Plutarch explained that Artemis was away at the birth of Alexander the Great, whose timing coincided with the inferno. When Artemis was present at her temple, Ephesus was invincible. She was painted as a sovereign ruler who was in control of who lived or died.

Artemis Savior, as she was titled, was petitioned for safe deliverance.[9] Women wore amulets to signal their devotion to Artemis. Mothers and fathers wrote letters to her temple asking for safety in child delivery. Women showed their gratitude to Artemis for a happy marriage or safe delivery by presenting the goddess with expensive garments.[11] The statue of Artemis was draped in lavish vestments, and the women petitioned her wearing their own finery.

Remember that 1 Timothy was written to correct false teaching with unified doctrine? Paul mentions salvation for the very thing the false goddess Artemis was famous for: childbirth.

15 Yet she will be saved through childbearing—if they continue in faith and love and holiness, with self-control. 1 Timothy 2

Paul corrects the method for obtaining protection in childbirth. It is not through devotion to Artemis, obtained by wearing fine garments, but through devotion to God and faith in Christ Jesus.

5 For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus… 9 likewise also [in prayer] that women should adorn themselves in respectable apparel, with modesty and self-control, not with braided hair and gold or pearls or costly attire, 10 but with what is proper for women who profess godliness—with good works. 1 Timothy 2


When we put 1 Timothy 2:9-15 into the context of combating the false worship of Artemis, we begin to understand Paul’s purpose for this passage. It is not to restrict all women, everywhere, forever. So what can we learn from 1 Timothy 2:9-15? Up next.


[1] F.F. Bruce, Paul:  Apostle of the Heart Set Free, Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1977, 287n10.

[2] Dr. Frank R. Ames, “Appendix One. The Ephesian Social World Providing the Backdrop for Paul’s Teaching in 1 Timothy,” in What’s With Paul and Women? Unlocking the Cultural Background to 1 Timothy 2, by Jon Zens (Lincoln: Ekklesia Press, 2010), 92.

[3] Sandra L. Glahn, “The Identity of Artemis in First-Century Ephesus,” Bibliotheca Sacra 172 (July-September 2015): 316-34. New Testament Abstracts, EBSCOhost (accessed November 29, 2017), 318.

[4] Steven M. Baugh, “Cult Prostitution in New Testament Ephesus: A Reappraisal,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42 (1999), no. 3: 443-460. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed December 2, 2017), 453-456.

[5] Ibid., 452.

[6] Glahn, “The Identity of Artemis in First-Century Ephesus,”319.

[7] Glahn, “The First-Century Ephesian Artemis: Ramifications of Her identity,”463.

[8] Don Todman, “Childbirth in the Ancient Roman World: The Origins of Midwifery,” Midwifery Today no. 85 (Spring 2008): 18-62. Alt HealthWatch, EBSCOhost (accessed December 10, 2017), 18.

[9] Glahn, “The First-Century Ephesian Artemis: Ramifications of Her identity,”451.

[10] Richard E. Oster, “Acts 9:23-41 and an Ephesian inscription,” Harvard Theological Review 77 (1984), no. 2: 233-237. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed December 2, 2017), 237.

[11] Franciszek, Sokolowski, “A New Testimony on the Cult of Artemis of Ephesus,” Harvard Theological Review 58 (1965), no. 4: 427-431. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed December 10, 2017), 428-429.



The Problem with Prayer in 1 Timothy 2:9-15

The Problem with Prayer in 1 Timothy 2:9-15

If we interpret 1 Timothy 2:9-15 through the lens of the context of the entire letter which is to correct false teaching, then we can understand that the restrictive measures Paul takes against these Ephesian women corrects some blatant error at that place and time. Theextreme” limitations Paul placed on the women of Ephesus is contrary to his customary practice. The mixed-up, no-good, spirituality that was being taught in Ephesus led people astray from the true faith. Extreme measures were needed that solved the problem. Paul’s instructions concerning women must be understood in context of the dangerous false teaching found in Ephesus.

They were praying wrong.

Prayer is the immediate topic beginning in 2:1. The false teaching in Ephesus was affecting who the church prayed to and how they went about their petitioning. We see this is a church-wide problem for Paul urged everyone  to pray for peaceful and quiet lives (2:2). He linked quiet, peaceful, godly living with achieving God’s evangelistic goal of bringing all people to a knowledge of the truth (2:4). Paul urged prayer correlating to the sound doctrine he taught them. We are to pray to the one true God our Savior (2:3), through His mediator, the man Christ Jesus (2:5). Here is the heart of the corrective teaching on prayer, which resulted in the practical instructions to men and women. Prayer directed to the one true God should be marked with peace and propriety, unlike prayer to idols.

Posture in prayer

In verse 8, men were instructed to lift both hands in prayer. This may indicate that a particular posture was in vogue that reflected idolatry. Most certainly, it was contentious, as Paul warned them against anger and arguing.

Verses 9-15 continued Paul’s flow of thought on prayer in verses 1-8, as he connected the prayer of men to the prayer of women with hĂłsautĂłs, or “likewise/also.”

…I want the men everywhere to pray, lifting up holy hands without anger or disputing. I also want the women… (2:8-9a) NIV

As in 1 Corinthians 11:4-5, Paul assumed both men and women would be praying in the church community. And, according to 1 Timothy 2:4, men and women were both to pray in a fashion that would not detract outsiders from knowing the true gospel.  Hesuchia, translated as “quiet” in verse 2, is the same Greek word Paul used to describe the desired attitude for women verse 12, often translated as “silent.” Regardless of how hesuchia is glossed in translation (as silent or quiet), Paul applied it to both genders in Ephesus (2:2), with special insistence that the women comply (2:12).

Apparel in prayer

Praying posture and emotion was affecting prayer for the men. For women, it was their apparel and attitude (2:9-10). Paul asked for modest dress, which he defined as decent and proper – without a show of wealth. Our modern mind equates modest apparel with more fabric, but Paul’s context reflected the idea of simplicity.

I also want the women to dress modestly, with decency and propriety, adorning themselves, not with elaborate hairstyles or gold or pearls or expensive clothes… (2:9) NIV

Sandra Glahn argues that in Greco-Roman society, braids, gold, pearls and expensive clothes were a mark of affluence, “associated with a person’s rank.”[1] This suggests that the women of Ephesus were entangled with the love of money (3:3; 6:5-10) and status, and this was evident in their arrogant attitudes and ostentatious attire. Paul distinguished good works as the apparel of those who worship God (2:10), in contrast to the ostentatious display of rank and wealth associated with idolatry. [2] (The next article on Artemis will provide explanation for Paul’s emphasis on apparel in worship.)

The attention given to praying women at the end of chapter 2 correlated with a particular Ephesian problem Timothy needed to correct. We get a clearer picture of what these women were doing with their voluble and interfering ways in chapter 5.  Some women were in danger of judgment (5:12), “saying things they ought not to (5:13),” followers of Satan (5:15), and exploiters (5:6, 16). This painted a picture of women who were not only disturbing the households of the church, but were demanding monetary support, and were implanting teaching that Paul calls “satanic” (5:15). We must not isolate Paul’s instructions in 2:9-15 from the problems he described with the Ephesian women in chapter 5. These women were undermining faith in Jesus Christ, especially when it came to who and how they prayed for help.

The motivation for prayer

If we find prayer as the context for Paul’s instructions introducing 1 Timothy 2:9-15, then we find the motivation for the context at its conclusion. Verse 15, which has been a debated enigma for millennia, states the concern that drove the Ephesians to pray in error.

Yet she will be saved through childbearing—if they continue in faith and love and holiness, with self-control. (2:15) ESV

David Scholer calls verse 15 the climax of the passage and links its positive assurance for women with the negative mandate prior in verse 12.[3]

I do not permit a woman to teach or to assume authority over a man. (2:12a) NIV

The main puzzle to solve in verse 15, to address Paul’s meaning for the entire passage, is the type and method of salvation promised to women. In verse 15, Paul declares that “she (a singular pronoun inherent in the singular verb) will be saved through childbirthing, if they (a plural pronoun inherent in the plural verb) continue in faith and love and holiness with self-control.” While there are many explanations for Paul’s switch in grammatical numeric value in this verse, Sandra Glahn suggests a simple explanation. Paul is borrowing a popular, local saying.[4]

“She will be saved through childbirth”

Scholars have identified that Paul often used popular sayings and quotes as a springboard to his teaching, but they are sometimes missed due to the limitations of Greek punctuation and historical context. Greek writing did not have a set way to indicate quotations, so many times archaeology and historical study reveals what could be a quote after years of research. That is the case for  1 Tim. 4:8-9 NASB; 1 Cor. 6:12 NIV; 1 Cor. 7:1-2 NIV; 1 Cor. 15:33; Titus 1:12, and Acts 17:24-29. Here is a modern example of how this works.

Be all that you can be if they sign up with the right mindset and willingness to work hard.

This quotation, without the quotes to indicate a popular saying, would be lost on anyone not watching American TV in the 80’s and 90’s. But put in the proper punctuation, and voila. “Be all that you can be” if they sign up with the right mindset and willingness to work hard. This indicates a context for us to interpret through.

If the phrase, “She will be saved through childbirth,” was a local slogan, Paul borrowed it to make a specific point, not to present an alternative salvation for women. This would be a simple explanation for the switch of numerical value in his subject. And it is a reasonable assumption for two reasons. Paul was known for using common sayings, and the famous, local deity of Ephesus was Artemis, the goddess of childbirth. We will detail her worship in the next article.

Ephesians 2:8-9 says we are saved by grace through faith, not by works. Titus 3:5 says salvation is not by works, but by God’s mercy. Paul is consistent that all people are only saved by faith in Christ alone.  We can be confident Paul was not teaching women have a special method of eternal salvation by giving birth. Instead, Paul used a local saying to assure women that they would survive the dangerous ordeal of childbirth.

Why is this particular assurance about surviving childbirth necessary contextually in the flow of Paul’s logic? It must have something to do with the instructions and teaching Paul gave immediately prior to this promise.

Understanding verses 11-14 in context with Paul’s promise to women in verse 15, gives us a glimpse at the false teaching Paul was correcting. In verse 11, Paul uses the only imperative verb in this passage to command the women to learn.

A woman must quietly receive instruction with entire submissiveness. (2:12) NAS

Certainly, they must learn in order to correct the superstitious and fictional notions that had deceived them. What is the best posture for learning? Paul agrees with one hundred percent of teachers, everywhere. A student must keep their mouths shut, and be willing to learn! Apparently, the Ephesian women were talking too much and instead of submitting to learn proper doctrine, they refused to listen.

Not only did these women with false notions refuse to learn, they insisted on teaching and controlling men with their false ideas (2:12). This false teaching most likely had its roots in a creation myth, because Paul proceeded to correct these ideas in verses 13-14. Adam was created first, not Eve. Eve instigated transgression because she was deceived. This was a simple correction of the facts, which the women in Ephesus apparently had not learned or disagreed with.  The refusal to learn (11), the dominating insistence of women (12), and the incorrect teaching about the creation order and fall (13-14) were all bound together in these women’s fear of dying in childbirth (15), according to Paul’s flow of argument.

What is not written in Paul’s words is the specific error his instructions corrected, because Timothy already knew them. For the modern reader to deduce what contemporary error these instructions addressed, a survey of what we know of the Ephesian religion and culture blended with the specific instructions Paul gives, is helpful. Read more about it.


[1] Sandra L. Glahn,”The First-Century Ephesian Artemis: Ramifications of Her Identity,” Bibliotheca Sacra 172, no. 688 (2015): 450-469. New Testament Abstracts, EBSCOhost (accessed November 29, 2017), 456.

[2] Ibid., 457.

[3] David M. Scholer, “1 Timothy 2:9-15 and the Place of Women in the Church’s Ministry,” in Women, Authority and the Bible, ed.  Alvera Mickelsen (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1986), 196.

[4] Glahn, 466.

The Women’s World of the House Church

The Women’s World of the House Church

Modern readers of the New Testament naturally impose familiar surroundings when reading the ancient words of the Bible. Think about it. When you read that Paul sent a letter to a church, do you imagine a group of people sitting in neat rows listening to a reader up on a platform? This is our idea of a church meeting. The reality of the first century church gatherings is worlds apart.

Immediately after the gift of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, the Jewish believers in Jesus began to meet in homes. In the house environment, they ate together and also taught Jesus’ words. Paul began each work in a new city by visiting the synagogue, but in every case, the gathering of believers ended up in someone’s personal abode.

And day by day, attending the temple together and breaking bread in their homes… Acts 2:46

And every day, in the temple and from house to house, they did not cease teaching and preaching Jesus as the Christ. Acts 5:42

…Saul was ravaging the church, and entering house after house, he dragged off men and women … Acts 8:3

 and teaching you in public and from house to house… Acts 20:20

Greet also the church in their house. Romans 16:5

Aquila and Prisca, together with the church in their house… 1 Corinthians 16:19

… Apphia our sister and Archippus our fellow soldier, and the church in your house… Philemon 1:2

…and to Nympha and the church in her house. Colossians 4:15

 DomusitalicaNow lets tackle our perceptions of what an ancient first century house was like. Much of our understanding of Roman houses comes from upper-class Pompeii and Herculaneum. A Roman domus, even the modest ones, would have rooms centered around a central courtyard. Simple houses in Palestine tended to have one central room with an open courtyard in front, and an extra “room” on the roof.

Based on this, consider the physical space of the early house churches. Some were in upper class villas, where there was ample space to divide the service along traditional gender lines, but in the vast majority of domestic structures, there was no room for segregation. Women and men worshiped physically together in the same spaces. Children and animals would be present either physically or within earshot.

Not only was the layout and architecture different from ours, the customs around the house and home life contrast with our modern practices. The home was the domain of women, not men. We see glimpses of this ancient mindset in Proverbs 31, where the wife governs the household affairs. Socrates mentions that the husband and wife are partners in the Roman estate: the wife at home and the husband in public. Philo states that a wife has full authority at home. Hospitality is a key virtue for women in the early church. In 1 Timothy 5:14, Paul instructs the married women to be the master of their own house. A wife with good management skills was prized in Roman times. The presence of wives, mothers and widows in the house churches enabled the first churches to blend the traditional female sphere of home with the traditionally male public sphere.

“To step into a Christian house church was to step into the women’s world.” (1)

The locale of the church inside of homes led Pliny the Younger and Celsus to criticize the Christians. Because the home is under the rule of women,  they considered Christianity an assault on Roman masculinity.

In is notable that Christian women did not exercise unique leadership roles in the early church, but they reflected the social and cultural shift of a woman’s place in this time. At the time of the early church, a woman’s legal and social status was in flux in Roman secular society. Women were beginning to recline at public functions and own property and businesses. These cultural shifts coincide with the rise of Christianity, and might have been amplified because of the equality of the gospel. Some women in the first century were listed as head of households. Some even held civic political appointments. Women were engaged in business and had funds to disperse.

Mary in Acts 12:12-17, Lydia in Acts 16, and Nympha in Colossians 4 all managed house churches.  1 Corinthians 1:11 reveals that Chloe is either the principal of a household or has an extended network of clients under her. Women would have presided over meals – the Love feast as well.  It was normal procedure for the one who owned the house to select the menu, facilitate conversation and provide entertainment.  Women in the early church were naturally a part of its leadership because the home was their sphere of influence.

So, next time you start reading through Acts or one of the epistles, employ your new understanding and imagine the church the way it would have been – at home.


This article is a brief summary of the ideas found in: A Woman’s Place by Carolyn Osiek, Margaret MacDonald with Janel Tulloch, 

(1) p. 163. 

The Ephesian Context of 1 Timothy 2:9-15

The Ephesian Context of 1 Timothy 2:9-15

For decades, I used 1 Timothy 2:9-15 as the starting gate for gauging my function in Christianity. I filtered my understanding of my place in God’s world through this passage. I was a woman. I had certain restrictions.

I was wrong.

Like many in Baptist churches, I had been taught a traditional interpretation of Paul’s instructions for women in 1 Timothy 2: women should be silent and never teach or govern men, or some softer variant of these limitations. This interpretation isolates the passage from the greater context of 1 Timothy, and mistakenly became my threshold for all commentary on a woman’s place in the church.

So how else should I understand this passage? Is the only alternative to believe a progressive interpretation that disregards these instructions as archaic, culturally based, and irrelevant for today’s church? In disregarding this passage as obsolete, I could be denying the truth found in 2 Timothy 3:16 that all Scripture is profitable.  But, what is profitable for modern Christians in 1 Timothy 2:8-15?*

Put in its historical and contextual setting, Paul’s instructions for Christian women in 1 Timothy 2:8-15 reveal God’s desire to see movement from deceptive controversy to unified doctrine.

Ephesian Error

Templum Dianae Ephesinae1 Timothy was written by Paul to guide Timothy in combating the false teaching that infected the church in Ephesus. Timothy was left behind to correct the doctrinal mess being taught by some in the church after Paul fled Ephesus for Macedonia due to the riot caused by the worshipers of the goddess Artemis (Acts 19:23-20:1). If the church fell for what these folks were teaching, the Christian faith in Ephesus was in danger. From his first words to his last, Paul reiterated that the truth of Jesus’ gospel must be protected. Read what he wrote.

“Timothy…command certain people not to teach false doctrines … or devote themselves to myths…” (1:3-4)

“…hold onto faith…which some have rejected…”  (1:19)

“Have nothing to do with godless myths and old wives’ tales…” (4:7)

“Watch your … doctrine closely…” (4:16)

“…guard what has been entrusted to your care. Turn away from godless chatter and the opposing ideas of what is falsely called knowledge, which some have professed and in so doing have departed from the faith.” (6:20-21).

This is the central concern that drove Paul’s instructions throughout the letter. Timothy was to guard the truth against the deceptive and contentious teaching present in the Ephesian church.

This error involved a definitive female target. In the Ephesian church, marriage was abandoned, and celibacy was embraced (4:3). The enrollment of “Widow,” a woman who lived without a man*, was filling with women who refused marriage, who meddled in other people’s affairs and said the wrong things (5:11-15). Older women were superstitious, avoiding the work of caring for others (4:7; 5:9-10). We get a glimpse of these superstitious and magical practices in Acts 19. The Ephesians valued objects with mystical powers (Acts 19:11-12, 19).  Men were not immune to the errors, either. Men and women were devoted to circulating fictional tales, fantasies and traditions (1:3-4, 6), and the men especially were causing disputes and arguing (2:8; 3:2-3; 6:4-5). Men were using the gospel for greed (3:3, 8; 6:5, 9-10).

The reason Paul was so serious about correcting the error was that false teaching results in wrong behavior. Paul was not only concerned that some might destroy their own faith (1:19; 5:15; 6:10, 21), but that others might not hear the true gospel because of the misguided conduct of the Ephesian Christians (4:16). Paul instructed Timothy to teach proper behavior (3:15) so the church would have a good reputation with outsiders (3:7), would not be open to blame (5:7), would not give cause for slander (5:14), and so others would see the consequences of good and evil behavior (5:24-25). In chapter 2, our specific context, Paul linked quiet, godly lives with God’s desire to see all people saved (2:4). To understand 1 Timothy 2:9-15 in a way that can be applied to societies outside Ephesus in the first century, it is imperative we understand what Paul was teaching Timothy: the church’s behavior reflects the church’s beliefs, and the world is watching.

What is profitable for us, today?

If we interpret 1 Timothy 2:9-15 through the lens of its context of correcting false teaching, and assume that the restrictive measures Paul takes against women corrects some blatant error at that place and time, then we can find what is profitable for us, today. This assumption is reasonable in light of Paul’s support of women’s involvement elsewhere. Women and men are equal in the Lord (Gal. 3:28). They worked hard for the Lord (Acts 8:3, 9:1-2, 22:4; Rom. 16:12; 1 Cor. 1:11, 16:19; Col. 4:15), prayed and prophesied in gatherings (1 Cor. 11:4-5, 14:23-24), taught men (Acts 21:9, 2 Tim. 1:5, 3:14-15), served as deacons (Rom. 16:1-2) and apostles (Rom. 16:7) and leaders (1 Thes. 5:12), and were co-laborers with men (Rom. 16:3, Phil. 4:2-3).

The “extreme” limitations Paul placed on the women of Ephesus is contrary to his customary practice. There must be a good reason why.  The mixed-up, no-good, spirituality that was being taught in Ephesus led people astray from the true faith. Extreme measures were needed that solved the problem. Paul’s instructions concerning women must be understood in context of the dangerous false teaching found in Ephesus. And this understanding hints at how we can apply 1 Timothy 2:9-15 to today. Here are some possible suggestions.

  • Desperate times call for desperate measures.
  • False teaching is not to be dealt with lightly.
  • Restrictions should be placed on those who cause the church to loose faith.

Next up, we’ll look at the immediate context of chapter 2: prayer. 

Part 3 covers the goddess worship of Artemis and its influence on Paul’s instructions.


[1] Nancy Wiles Holsey, “Response to Scholer and Kroeger,” in Women, Authority, and the Bible, ed. Alvera Mickelsen (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1986), 248-249.

[2] Charlotte Metheun, “The “Virgin Widow”: A Problematic Social Role for the Early Church?” Harvard Theological Review 90, no. 3 (1997): 286-287.

Part 1: A Young Feminist Reads 1 Timothy.
Part 2: 1 Timothy 2:9-15 Offends
Part 3: She kept reading, a win

A young feminist reads 1 Timothy

A young feminist reads 1 Timothy

Recently, my daughter was reading through a certain New Testament book that I knew was going to get her all hot and bothered. I knew that if my little feminist read that letter to a particular young man, she would only see the words written at the end of the second chapter, lose her temper, and then feel confirmed in her impression that her mother was stupid for making her read this archaic, misogynistic nonsense. So, when I saw that this book was next on her  Bible reading chart, I prefaced it with a bit of background, hoping to jump start her critical thinking ahead of her thoughts of criticism.

“Honey, let me give you a little background on why this book was written before you jump in. That way as you read, you can imagine why Paul wrote the things he did.”


“Because if you isolate Paul’s words from the historical setting and his motivation for writing the words, you’re going to not understand God in the right way.”


“1 Timothy is a personal letter written to Timothy from Paul. Paul left Timothy in Ephesus when he had to leave it suddenly due to the whole city demonstrating against him for preaching against Artemis.” My avid Greek mythologist perked up at that name. “You remember Artemis?”

“Yeah. She was a hunter and Apollo’s twin. She stood up against men.”

“Yep. She was a virgin, and she refused to consort with men. In Ephesus, they had built a huge temple in her honor. It was bigger than the Parthenon. Inside was a gigantic statue of Artemis, and people from all over the Roman Empire came to Ephesus to worship her. The wealthy Ephesian aristocrats dedicated their young, virgin daughters to serve her. It was very prestigious to be a priestess of Artemis. She was also the goddess of childbirth, not because she gave birth herself, but she was supposed to sympathize with women in labor. Her own mother, Leto, labored for seven days to give birth to Apollo. So, pregnant women prayed to Artemis to help them in childbirth. Half of the women in those times died in childbirth, so Artemis had great power with women. The women would bring her beautiful clothes and dress up to worship her at temple.”

“What does this have to do with Paul and Timothy?”

“The church in Ephesus had people that were teaching the wrong things about God. Paul wanted Timothy to correct that bad teaching. So, Paul gave him specific instructions about how to do that.”

“What does Artemis have to do with God?”

“Exactly. She doesn’t have anything to do with the real God. She is an idol, a made-up story. But, she had a strong influence with the Ephesians, and some were mixing her worship with the Christian worship. Especially the women. Because Artemis had such appeal to women.”


“So, as you read, just keep in mind the women were influenced by their previous devotion to Artemis, and Paul wanted to clear up that confusion. Jesus is the one, true, living God.”

“Are you done? I want to just get this reading done.”


…stay tuned.


Ames, Frank R. “Appendix One. The Ephesian Social World Providing the Backdrop for Paul’s Teaching in 1 Timothy,” in What’s With Paul and Women? Unlocking the Cultural Background to 1 Timothy 2. By Jon Zens. Lincoln: Ekklesia Press, 2010.
Baugh, Steven M. “Cult Prostitution in New Testament Ephesus: A Reappraisal.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 42 (1999), no. 3: 443-460. 
Glahn, Sandra L. “The First-Century Ephesian Artemis: Ramifications of Her Identity,” Bibliotheca Sacra 172, no. 688 (2015): 450-469. 
Glahn, Sandra L. “The Identity of Artemis in First-Century Ephesus,” Bibliotheca Sacra 172 (July-September 2015): 316-34. 
Oster, Richard E. “Acts 9:23-41 and an Ephesian Inscription.” Harvard Theological Review 77 (1984), no. 2: 233-237. 



Sabbath was equal rest.

Sabbath was equal rest.

We often think that Christianity ushered in a new era of equality for races, genders and cultural roles with Paul’s declaration that in Christ, there is no Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female (Gal. 3:28). But God emphasized equality of persons thousands of years earlier when He gave Moses the Ten Commandments.

Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy.  Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your male or female servant, nor your animals, nor any foreigner residing in your towns.  For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy. Exodus 20:8-11 NIV

Setting aside the seventh day each week was how God desired to be worshiped. God wanted people to connect with Him in rest. The Sabbath commandment leveled the social constructs that humans feel compelled to enforce around the worship of God. On the six days of work, society was split along gender, race, age lines and roles; but on Sabbath, all human distinctions ceased.

Children rested along with parents. Slaves had recess from all their duties. The immigrant must stop their work as well. Women and girls relaxed. Servants had the day off. Ox, horses and donkeys were set to graze.  It had to be rest for all. Sabbath was not for Jewish men only.

The holy day was a day of equality. Week after week, God emphasized His impartiality to gender, race, age, and even species! In this idle space of Sabbath, the One Creator God was worshiped in unity. In Christ and in Sabbath rest, we are all one.

Women in the Text: Hagar Names God

Women in the Text: Hagar Names God

Hagar’s remarkable experience of God is comparable to any of the Patriarch’s, yet it is often overlooked.

Hagar’s History

Hagar was Egyptian. She was most likely given to Sarah by Pharaoh as redress for his bride-napping. She was a stranger in Canaan, different from  the others, marginalized, living in an alien and backward land compared to the grand courts of Egypt. Her accent was different. Her looks set her apart. She most likely faced racial and class prejudice. She was a slave.

Her master  was Sarah. It was Sarah who determined the course of Hagar’s life when she offered her – as a possession – to her husband Abraham. In today’s terms, we call this sex trafficking. In ancient terms, it was an acceptable legal transaction. The Code of Hammurabi gives us some insight into the everyday ethics that determined family life in this era. An infertile wife could offer her slave to her husband. If a child was born as a result, it was against the law (or custom) for the husband to remarry. This saved a barren woman from sharing her husband with another wife, yet still provided an heir.

144. If a man take a wife and this woman give her husband a maid-servant, and she bear him children, but this man wishes to take another wife, this shall not be permitted to him; he shall not take a second wife.

Sarah, acting in accordance with the customs of her time, says to Abraham: “The Lord has kept me from having children. Go, sleep with my slave; perhaps I can build a family through her. (Genesis 16:2) ” Sarah gives Hagar to Abraham, not as wife or concubine but as a womb. If Hagar conceived and bore a child, Sarah’s position as the sole wife of Abraham was secure.

Hagar’s grasp for honor

But Hagar had different ideas. And, who can blame her? Her status changed from slave to the mother of the new heir of Abraham. It is easy to empathize with her desire to take any advantage she could! There was also the dynamic of motherhood at play. Hagar, feeling the overwhelming protection of maternity, felt the need to establish a place of honor for her child. Yet, any behavior on her part that was not fitting as a slave, was actually considered unlawful. See Hammurabi again.

146. If a man take a wife and she give this man a maid-servant as wife and she bear him children, and then this maid assume equality with the wife: because she has borne him children her master shall not sell her for money, but he may keep her as a slave, reckoning her among the maid-servants.

Hagar claimed an honor that did not belong to her, perhaps as a wife or mistress of Abraham, and in the process shamed her owner, Sarah. Genesis 16:4 says, “her mistress was dishonorable in her eyes.” Hagar made a power-play to take advantage of her circumstance and reverse her fortunes and confirm the status of her child, but she was out of line. Sarah’s reaction was more than jealousy, it was justice. Hagar had no right to shame Sarah and claim any worth, for her or her child, above that of slave.

Our modern sense of Western justice has a hard time accepting the clout of this honor/shame dynamic that dominated the Eastern world. Even though Hagar was the one behaving badly, we sympathize with her suffering. When Sarah disciplined her harshly, as just punishment for Hagar’s transgressions, we sense a deeper injustice that was ignored. Hagar never asked to be put in this position! She was forced into sexual relations, and required to birth a baby at great personal risk (childbirth has always been a dangerous enterprise). Surely, her arrogance could be overlooked? Right? Give her a break, Sarah!

When Sarah applied harsh judgement on her, Hagar had few choices. Stay in an abusive situation where she had no voice and little value, or attempt escape. She chose to run away; a courageous, if not foolhardy, option.

Hagar runs away…

…most likely headed back to Egypt (Genesis 16:7). Her flight indicates how desperate and alone she must have felt in Sarah’s house. The journey from Canaan to Egypt is like walking from Seattle to Spokane. Pregnant.

Hagar had serious problems. She was a runaway slave, carrying the property of her mistress. She was a fugitive. She was breaking the law. But, she was an abused and terrified woman.

In the middle of this terror of flight, God came to Hagar.

God visited Hagar! An Egyptian. A woman. A slave. An abuse survivor. At that point in recorded history, God had only come to Noah and Abraham. Hagar’s experience with God is thought provoking. When we consider the times God intervened in Person, what was required of the recipient was usually terrifying. Noah had to build an ark for decades to survive a holocaust. Abraham had to mutilate his very private flesh, and the flesh of 300+ of his men. And, God’s visit to Hagar followed suit. God required Hagar to return to her life as the slave of Sarah. Gulp. That is hard to accept, isn’t it? God was sending Hagar back to slavery, back into the toxic situation with Sarah. We could speculate that there were few options for Hagar, and that was the most merciful one, but I find it hard to swallow, regardless. Experiencing a visit from God was alarming and the task was never easy.

God requires hard things. But, God is full of promise.

God gave Hagar a fertile hope.

“I will increase your descendants so much that they will be too numerous to count.” (Genesis 16:10) Sound familiar? God promised this woman great fertility, just as God promised Abraham (Genesis 15:5). God gave Hagar a prophesy of hope concerning her child that spoke to a mother’s greatest fear.

  • Her son would be born, alive and healthy.
  • She should name him God Hears: Ishmael, because of her personal experience with God.
  • He would be free, not a slave. He would be a warrior. He would have brothers and family and would not be alone as she was.
  • God promised Hagar a future for her son.

Hagar named God.

“You are El Roi, for I have now seen the One who sees me.” (Genesis 16:13-14) Inspired by her personal encounter with God and her own experience of being marginalized, Hagar teaches others about God’s perception. Perhaps this was comforting to her, because she knew God was aware of all things done to her hidden from the sight of others. As Jesus confirmed thousands of years later, “God who sees what is done in secret, will reward you. (Matthew 6:4)”

Because Hagar knew God saw her and promised her son’s future was secure, Hagar had the courage to return to her unfortunate situation. Once at home, she instructs Abraham to name their son Ishmael, and her extraordinary talk with God was immortalized as a place-name in the ancient world. Beer Lahai Roi: the well of the Living One who sees me.

Hagar’s story continues.